The National Academy of Science, founded in 1884, is the principal scientific organization. Among Mexico's 36 scientific and technological learned societies and 26 scientific research institutes, the natural sciences and medicine predominate. Especially well known is the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center, founded in Mexico City in 1966; its director, Norman Ernest Borlaug, received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1970 for his work in advancing the "green revolution." More than 60 universities and colleges in Mexico offer courses in basic and applied sciences. In 1987–97, science and engineering students accounted for 32% of college and university enrollments.
The primary science and technology policymaking body is the National Council for Science and Technology, a decentralized public body created in 1970 composed of researchers, scientists, academicians, and government officials. They formulate, study, evaluate, and execute national science and technology policies. In 1989, the Consultative Council on Sciences was created to advise directly the President of Mexico on science and technology. In 1993, Mexico's expenditures totaled 3.6 billion pesos; 8,595 scientists and engineers and 2,477 technicians were engaged in research and development.