Import duties range from 0% to 30%. The average tariff rate is 13% ad valorem, as a result of Ecuador's accession to the World Trade Organization in 1996. Ecuador has a common external tariff (CET) with Colombia and Venezuela, ranging from 5% on raw materials and capital goods, 10% or 15% for intermediate goods, and 20% for consumer goods. Agricultural products and equipment are duty-free. The automobile tax of 35% was repealed in 2000, but the tariff levels increased between 2% and 5% to help finance the public debt. Excise taxes on imported and locally manufactured cigarettes, soft drinks, alcoholic beverages, and other luxury items were reduced in 1997.
Comparatively few non-tariff trade barriers remain following measures taken in the 1990s to liberalize trade. Ecuador is a member of the Andean Pact and the Latin American Integration Association (LAIA). Ecuador also has bilateral free trade agreements with Colombia, Bolivia, Venezuela, and Chile. All accord preferential duty treatment. Five free trade zones were established in 1991, including the Zona Franca de Esmeraldas, Zona Franca del Pacifico S.A., Zona Franca Centro Ecuatoriana CA, Zona Franca Manabi, and Parque Industrial de Cuenca CEM.