In 1987–97, total expenditures for research and development amounted to 0.8% of GNP; 1,121 technicians and 1,612 scientists and engineers per million people were engaged in research and development. Emphasis fell on agricultural research, new technologies for the recovery of nickel and cobalt, and a joint Soviet-Cuban spaceflight research program. The Academy of Sciences of Cuba, founded in 1962, is Cuba's principal scientific institution; it, as well as the Ministry of Agriculture, operates numerous research centers throughout Cuba. Institutions offering higher education in science and engineering include the University of Havana (founded in 1928), the University of Oriente at Santiago de Cuba (founded in 1947), the Central University of Las Villas in Villa Clara (founded in 1952), the University of Camagüey (founded in 1967), and the University Center of Pinar del Rio (founded in 1972). In 1987–97, science and engineering students accounted for 16% of college and university enrollments.