Blaise Diagne (1872–1934) was the first African to be elected to the French parliament and to hold office in the French government as an undersecretary of state. Léopold-Sédar Senghor (1906–2001), president of Senegal from 1960 until his retirement in 1980, is a French-language poet of distinction; in 1984, he became a life member of the French Academy, the first black African to receive that honor. Abdou Diouf (b. 1935) was president of Senegal (1981–2000), after serving as prime minister (1970–80). Among Senegalese writers are Birago Diop (1906–89), author of short stories, and David Diop (1927–60), an internationally known poet. Ousmane Sembene (b. 1923) is a film director and writer of international repute. Cheikh Anta Diop (1923–86), RND leader, wrote many works of distinction on African history.