The population of Rwanda in 2003 was estimated by the United Nations at 8,387,000, which placed it as number 88 in population among the 193 nations of the world. In that year approximately 3% of the population was over 65 years of age, with another 44% of the population under 15 years of age. There were 91 males for every 100 females in the country in 2003. According to the UN, the annual population growth rate for 2000–2005 is 2.16%, with the projected population for the year 2015 at 10,565,000. The population density in 2002 was 281 per sq km (727 per sq mi). Rwanda is the most densely populated country on the African continent.
It was estimated by the Population Reference Bureau that 6% of the population lived in urban areas in 2001. The capital city, Kigali, had a population of 369,000 in that year. According to the United Nations, the urban population growth rate for 2000– 2005 was 4.2%.
The prevalence of AIDS/HIV has had a significant impact on the population of Rwanda. The United Nations estimated that 9.1% of adults between the ages of 15–49 were living with HIV/AIDS in 2001. The AIDS epidemic causes higher death and infant mortality rates, and lowers life expectancy.