There is a progressive personal income tax with a top rate of 35%. The basic tax on corporate profits is 35%. Nonresident shareholders are taxed 10% on dividends, and there is a tax on undistributed profits. Diamond mines are taxed at a rate of 55%. Gold mines and oil and gas extraction companies are taxed at a special rate. As of 27 November 2001, a value-added tax (VAT) replaced the 8% general sales tax (GST), with a standard rate of 15%. Exempted from VAT are education, medical services, hotel accommodations, and public transportation. There are also excise taxes on luxury goods.