Ghana - Industry
Food, cocoa, and timber processing plants lead a list of industries that include an oil refinery, textiles, vehicles, cement, paper, chemicals, soap, beverages, and shoes. As part of its chemicals industry, Ghana produces rubber, aluminum, and pharmaceuticals. Much of Ghana's industrial base was nationalized over the years. Encouraged by the IMF, however, Ghana has largely ended its parastatal era. Between 1991 and 1999, more than two-thirds of the 300 public sector companies were divested, and the government decided to speed up privatization by contracting private consultants to manage the process.
In 2000, industry annually accounted for about 25% of GDP. Recent industrial activity has included a reopened glass factory, a new palm oil mill, a locally supplied cement plant, and facilities for milling rice, distilling citronella, and producing alcohol. Industry in Ghana is now oriented towards the fabrication of value-added semi-manufactured and finished products rather than just primary commodities for export—items such as furniture, jewelry, beer bottles, aluminum cooking utensils, fruit juice, and chocolate bars. The Tema industrial estate includes the Tema Food Complex, comprised of a fish cannery, flour and feed mills, a tin-can factory, and other facilities. The aluminum smelter at Tema is owned by Kaiser Aluminum and is one of Ghana's largest manufacturing enterprises.
The construction industry in 2002 included projects geared toward the building of roads, bridges, coastal works, and residential housing.
Ghana produces no oil or natural gas, but it has an oil refinery with a capacity of 45,000 barrels per day. The Tema refinery operates on crude oil imported from Nigeria. Ghana has natural gas reserves of 24 billion cubic meters. The 600 km (373 mi) West African Gas Pipeline was due to be completed in 2003, with a supply point in Tema. The pipeline is to have an estimated capacity of 400 cubic feet a day.