Egypt joined the UN as a charter member on 24 October 1945 and participates in ECA, ESCWA, and all the non-regional specialized agencies. Egypt became the first Arab state to normalize relations with Israel following the conclusion of the 1979 peace treaty. As a result of this act, however, Egypt's membership in the League of Arab States was suspended; Egypt did not rejoin the League until 1989. The country is a signatory to the Law of the Sea and a member of the WTO. It belongs to the African Development Bank, G-77, and African Union (AU), and is a permanent observer at the OAS. Egypt's relations with the United States have improved since 1973; relations with the former USSR continued to deteriorate until 1984, when diplomatic relations were restored, with an economic cooperation agreement announced between the two countries in 1986.
Between 1958 and 1973, Egypt made several attempts to establish united or federated states with its Arab neighbors. Egypt and Syria formed the United Arab Republic from February 1958 to September 1961, when Syria broke away; the United Arab States, consisting of Egypt, Syria, and Yemen, survived formally from March 1958 through December 1961, although never a political reality; and a federation between Egypt, Syria, and Iraq, officially established in April 1963, was never implemented. On 1 January 1972, Egypt, Syria, and Libya established the Federation of Arab Republics, but to little practical effect. A formal merger attempt between Egypt and Libya, nominally consummated on 1 September 1973, dissolved in practice when relations between the two countries soured. An Egyptian-Sudanese Charter of Integration was signed in October 1982 but never implemented.