The population of Djibouti in 2003 was estimated by the United Nations at 703,000, which placed it as number 157 in population among the 193 nations of the world. In that year approximately 3% of the population was over 65 years of age, with another 43% of the population under 15 years of age. There were 99 males for every 100 females in the country in 2003. According to the UN, the annual population growth rate for 2000–2005 is1.58%, with the projected population for the year 2015 at 839,000. The population density in 2002 was 28 per sq km (73 per sq mi). The vast majority lives in and around the capital, with much of the rest of the country inhabitable.
It was estimated by the Population Reference Bureau that 83% of the population lived in urban areas in 2001. The capital city, Djibouti, had a population of 523,000 in that year. According to the United Nations, the urban population growth rate for 2000– 2005 was 2.3%.
The prevalence of AIDS/HIV has had a significant impact on the population of Djibouti. The United Nations estimated that7.1% of adults between the ages of 15–49 were living with HIV/AIDS in 2001. The AIDS epidemic causes higher death and infant mortality rates, and lowers life expectancy.