At least 200,000 Chadians fled the country during the civil war in 1979–81, mostly to Cameroon and Nigeria. About 150,000 returned in 1982. In 1983, up to 200,000 of the estimated 700,000 Chadians in Nigeria were expelled as part of a general expulsion of foreigners. Beginning in 1983, tens of thousands of Chadians fled from Libyan-controlled northern Chad and other areas of the country. The government of Chad reported that more than 152,000 Chadians returned home between November 1985, when a general amnesty was proclaimed, and the end of June 1987. As of 1995, there were 42,900 Chadian refuges in Cameroon; 21,500 in the Central African Republic; 2,100 in the Congo; 2,000 in Niger; and 1,300 in Nigeria. In 1997, there were only 4,400 Chadian refugees still in Sudan. A total of some 10,500 Chadian refugees were repatriated from the Central African Republic, between April 1995 and September 1997, and Niger, between December 1997 and January 1999. The Chadian government, in agreement with UNHCR, decided to facilitate the repatriation of another 55,000 Chadian refugees between 1999 and the end of 2000.
As of 2000 there were 41,000 migrants living in Chad, of which 43% were refugees. The net migration rate for that year was 2.7 per 1000 population. The government views the migration levels as satisfactory.