The African Party for the Independence of Cape Verde (Partido Africano da Independência do Cabo Verde—PAICV) was the sole legal political party from 1975 until 1990. On 28 September 1990, the constitution was amended to legalize opposition parties. In the parliamentary elections held 13 January 1991, the PAICV was defeated by the Movement for Democracy (MpD), which garnered 68% of the vote. Through the 1990s and into the early 21st century, PAICV was the opposition in the National Assembly. In 1993 and 1994, divisions within the MpD led to the resignation of key members and the emergence of a new party, the Party for Democratic Convergence (PCD). In the 1995 legislative elections, the MpD won 50 seats; the PAICV, 21; and the PCD, 1.
Assembly elections were last held 14 January 2001 with the PAICV obtaining 47.3%, the MpD 39.8%, the Democratic Alliance for Change (ADM) 6%, and other 6.9%. The ADM was a coalition of three parties—the PCD, PTS, and the UCID. The number of seats held by party was PAICV 40, MPD 30, and ADM 2. The next parliamentary elections were scheduled for December 2005.