The 1965 constitution provides for a high court, a court of appeal, and subordinate first-, second-, and third-class courts. The chief justice, appointed by the president, is chairman of the Judicial Services Commission, which advises the president on the appointment of other judges and magistrates. The African Courts Proclamation of 1961 provides for courts with competence in matters of tribal law and custom, presided over by chiefs and headmen. A court of appeals for such cases was created in 1986. The customary courts handle marital and property disputes as well as minor offenses. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislative branches. The legal system is based on Roman-Dutch law and local customary law.