Angola has extensive hydroelectric power resources that far exceed its present needs. The Cambambe Dam, on the Cuanza River, provides Luanda's industries with cheap power. Two dams on the Catumbela River produce power for the Lobito and Benguela areas. Matala Dam in southern Cunene provides power to Lubango and Namibe. The Ruacaná Falls Dam, near the Namibian border, was completed in the late 1970s, but the power station is in Namibia. A 52 million kW hydroelectric station on the Cuanza River at Kapanda was tentatively scheduled to begin production in early 2003. As of late 2002, only three of the country's six dams (Cambambe, Biopo, and Matala) were operational; $200 million has been allocated to repair the remaining dams, which suffered major damage in the civil war. In 2000, net electricity generation was 1.4 billion kWh, of which 40% came from fossil fuels and 60% from hydropower. In the same year, consumption of electricity totaled 1.1 billion kWh. Total installed capacity at the beginning of 2001 was 586 MW.
Crude oil, in the production of which Angola ranks second in sub-Saharan Africa, has been Angola's chief export since 1973; it is also the leading source of government revenue, accounting for $2.9 billion in exports in 1994, or 95% of the total. At the start of 1999, Angola had proven oil reserves of 5.4 billion barrels, or 700 million tons. Oil reserves are along the Atlantic coast, mostly offshore Cabinda and the northern border area between Quinzau and Soyo. In 1999, several oil companies were engaged in production, of which the largest was a subsidiary of Chevron, Cabinda Gulf Oil Company. This firm has a 49/51% participation agreement with Sonangol, the state oil company. Other firms included Fina Petróleos de Angola (a Belgian subsidiary), Elf Aquitaine, and Texaco. In 2001, crude oil production was estimated at 742,000 barrels per day. It was expected to exceed 1 million barrels per day in 2003. Exxon Mobil subsidiary Esso began development of a section of the Xikomba offshore oilfield in August 2002. Development was planned for a new 200,000 barrel per day refinery in the city of Lobito, on the coast.
About 569 million cu m (20.1 billion cu ft) of natural gas were produced in 1997. Total natural gas reserves were estimated at 45 billion cu m as of 2002 (1.6 trillion cu ft). Domestic demand for refined petroleum products is expected to increase as the economy gradually rebuilds following the end of the civil war. As of 2002, Sonangol and Chevron Texaco had joined forces in a $2 billion project to develop liquefied natural gas from natural gas in Angola's offshore fields. Production was slated to begin in 2007.