In 1999 the adult illiteracy rate was estimated at 42%. Education for children between the ages of seven and 15 years is compulsory and free. Primary education is for four years and secondary for seven years. While Portuguese was the language of instruction in earlier times, the vernacular is more commonly used now. Angolan primary schools had 989,443 pupils in 1992 and 31,062 teachers in 1991, the latest years for which statistics were available as of early 2003. Secondary schools had 218,987 pupils in 1992. An estimated 2.6% of GDP was allocated to education in 1999.
The University Agostinho Neto in Luanda was established in 1963 and has a faculty for science, engineering, law, medicine, economics, and agriculture. In 1991 all higher-level institutions had 6,331 students and 787 teaching staff.